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New and old changes in the manufacturing market
Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Dongguan, the Pearl River Delta manufacturing market, whether it is to highlight the engine of the economy, or as a benchmark to reflect the transformation trend, its manufacturing development status, challenges, can be said to be China's manufacturing industry A microcosm of it.
The winter of manufacturing is still continuing, and this cold wind is still hovering over the Pearl River Delta. A group of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises suffered financial breaks, "half dead and not live"; a group of innovative entrepreneurial enterprises began to subvert the tradition and enter the future.
As the forefront of China's reform and opening up, the manufacturing industry in the Pearl River Delta region is booming and has become a model for China's rapid economic development in recent decades. The geographical area of this area is only 0.6% of the country's land area. The population is only 4.2% of the national population, but it accounts for 27% of China's total exports. It absorbs nearly 20% of the country's total foreign investment, and foreign investment mainly comes from neighboring Hong Kong.
Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Dongguan, the Pearl River Delta manufacturing market, whether it is an engine that highlights the economy, or a benchmark that reflects the trend of transformation, the status quo of manufacturing development, challenges and transformation, can be said to be Chinese manufacturing A microcosm of it. Nowadays, what difficulties and challenges are faced by these cities, especially what measures are taken by the government to prevent the decline of the manufacturing industry, promote its transformation and upgrading, and accelerate to the mid-to-high end level?
Guangzhou: Implementing a strong city strategy
Guangzhou is an important central city, an international business center and an integrated transportation hub in China. It is a major manufacturing town in the Pearl River Delta. Guangzhou is also the most complete industrial city in South China. It has five super-100 billion-level industries, including automobile manufacturing, petrochemicals and electronic products. There are as many as 21 ships, metallurgy, textiles and garments in the industry of over 10 billion yuan. More than 100 billion).
Speaking of the basis and current situation of Guangzhou's manufacturing industry, Jiang Chuanfu, a researcher at the Research Office of the People's Government of Guangzhou, said in his "Thoughts on the Development of Guangzhou's Manufacturing Industry" last year: Guangzhou's manufacturing industry is expanding, but its growth momentum is insufficient; In the high-end, but the industrial structure still needs to be optimized; the manufacturing cluster is large-scale, but the agglomeration function still needs to be strengthened; the production factors are intensively expanded, but the level of savings still needs to be improved.
Jiang Chuanfu believes that the low-cost comparative advantage of the manufacturing labor force is gradually declining, and the scale and speed of investment by multinational companies in Guangzhou are also declining, restricting the manufacturing industry to further attract foreign investment. At the same time, the prices of labor, land and raw materials continue to rise, and the cost of production factors increases. The advantages of traditional factors supporting development have gradually weakened, and the problem of enterprise labor shortage has continued to emerge. The excessive investment-driven model is unsustainable. In some industries, overcapacity has become a hard indicator.
Of course, these problems are also common problems in manufacturing cities. Standing on the historical node of manufacturing reform, Guangzhou is looking for bottlenecks and breakthroughs in manufacturing development. The eleventh Party Congress held recently, Guangzhou officially proposed: comprehensively implement the strategy of manufacturing strong cities, promote the deep integration of industrialization and informationization, and promote the transformation and upgrading of “Guangzhou Manufacturing” to “Guangzhou Zhizhuang” and “Guangzhou Creation”. It is required that by 2020, the added value of advanced manufacturing in the city will account for 70% of the added value of manufacturing enterprises above designated size, and a new system of high-end, high-quality, high-tech and modern industries will basically take shape.
According to the Guangzhou Industrial and Information Technology Commission (hereinafter referred to as the 'Guangzhou Industrial and Information Committee'), the Guangzhou Municipal Party Committee and the Municipal Government have always attached great importance to promoting the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry, improving quality and efficiency, consolidating the foundation of the real economy, and timely introducing more implementations. Important planning, speeding up the preparation of integrated circuit, biomedical and other policy documents, and establishing a strategic plan with the "Guangzhou Manufacturing 2025 Strategic Plan" as the leader, including the action master plan, the ten key areas, the emerging industry sub-regulation, and the high-end growth industry. The system forms a programmatic document with both the top-level design level and a concrete grasp of the work level.
"With the promotion of these policy measures, the manufacturing industry of our city, especially the advanced manufacturing industry, has maintained a relatively fast development trend. The main indicators are better than the national and provincial averages. The manufacturing industry has achieved remarkable results. Guangzhou's comprehensive industrial strength is stable. The first phalanx of the country, the ability to lead innovation has been significantly enhanced, and the supporting role of the manufacturing industry has become increasingly prominent." The Guangzhou Industrial and Commercial Committee introduced the reporter to the "Xiaokang".
It is understood that Guangzhou implements the strategy of manufacturing strong cities, including carrying out four major actions of innovation and development of advanced manufacturing, promoting the layout of industrial planning, focusing on intelligent manufacturing, taking the entire industrial chain as a breakthrough, and building 7 advanced projects such as Huangpu, Nansha and Zengcheng. The manufacturing base will focus on building five auto parts bases, the “one core five bases and ten towns” and the integrated circuit industry ecosystem in the Internet industry cluster, and building advanced manufacturing industry clusters such as smart equipment and robots, energy conservation and new energy vehicles. We will vigorously develop next-generation information technologies such as the Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence, and build a number of industries or projects that are in the forefront of the world and the world, and promote the development of industrial clusters and clusters to form a more stable industry. Support system. Create a 2025 pilot demonstration city and a national manufacturing innovation center.
Shenzhen: Innovative development, optimizing Shenzhen manufacturing supply
Another manufacturing city in the Pearl River Delta, Shenzhen, located on the east bank of the Pearl River Delta, is the window of China's reform and opening up, creating the world-famous “Shenzhen Speed”. Shenzhen's high-end industrial development momentum is good, the total value-added of advanced manufacturing and high-tech manufacturing industry and the proportion of industrial added value above designated size are the highest in the province.
At present, the industrial structure of Shenzhen's manufacturing industry continues to adjust to moderately heavy, advanced and high-tech. In the case of China's overall manufacturing market is not optimistic, in 2016, Shenzhen's industrial enterprises above designated size still achieved an industrial added value of 719.95 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 7%, of which the manufacturing industry realized an industrial added value of 663.86 billion yuan, accounting for Shenzhen's industry. The ratio was 92.2%, a year-on-year increase of 7.6%.
However, there is no doubt that Shenzhen is now facing the problem of excessively high business costs. The regulation of high housing prices and high land prices itself will result in only industries with high output value to stay. For example, behind the relocation of Huawei last year, it reflects the multiple worries of manufacturing companies on the cost of production and research and the high cost of urban renting. If the price of land prices rises to a certain extent, the result may be a brain drain and a decrease in attractiveness, which will definitely affect the manufacturing sector.
In response to the current global economic downturn and the unfavorable situation of the rapid rise in business costs in Shenzhen, according to the Shenzhen Economic and Trade and Information Technology Committee (hereinafter referred to as “Shenzhen Economic and Information Committee”), Shenzhen has several important measures in promoting the development of manufacturing. . The first is to strengthen overall planning, improve the design of the top-level system, and focus on the problems faced by enterprises, and support them from the aspects of talent cultivation, financial and taxation financial policy support, land use, and innovation capabilities, and focus on solving the pain points of enterprises.
In terms of innovation and development, optimizing Shenzhen's manufacturing supply is even more generous. Shenzhen Mayor Xu Qin said in the 2016 government work report that in the past five years, it has vigorously promoted the optimization of quality and quantity, and the number of low-end enterprises that have been eliminated in the past five years has exceeded 17,000.
According to the Shenzhen Economic and Information Committee, Shenzhen focuses on innovation and promotes independent innovation. In 2016, Shenzhen invested more than 80 billion yuan in research and development of the whole society, and its share of GDP increased to 4.1%, reaching the world's advanced level. 210 new innovation carriers, including national key laboratories, engineering laboratories, engineering research centers, and enterprise technology centers, have been added, with a total of 1,493.
Shenzhen pays attention to incremental quality and creates a new highland of industry. In order to speed up the optimization of the manufacturing structure, the Shenzhen Municipal Government has successively laid out seven major emerging industries such as a new generation of information technology and five future industries such as aerospace. The emerging industries have become the main force for GDP growth in Shenzhen. In 2016, the growth contribution rate reached 53%.
Shenzhen pays attention to stock optimization and leads the high-end development of the industry. Traditional industries such as clothing, furniture, glasses, gold jewelry, watches and clocks are an important part of the Shenzhen industrial system. The municipal government has introduced a series of policies to guide enterprises to develop new products, create new brands, provide new services, and create new demands. In 2016, we supported 456 traditional industrial transformation and upgrading projects, promoting “Shenzhen Processing” to “Shenzhen Manufacturing” to “ Shenzhen created "crossing development.
Next, how will Shenzhen promote the development of manufacturing? The Shenzhen Economic and Information Committee said that it will promote more resource elements to the real economy such as manufacturing through stable indicators, quality improvement, implementation, and excellent services, in order to improve quality and efficiency, revitalize the real economy, and focus on improving the efficiency of the real economy. .
Foshan: Vigorously support the development of intelligent manufacturing
“Big enterprises are everywhere, and small enterprises are everywhere in the pearl.” Foshan, another manufacturing center in the Pearl River Delta, is located on the west bank of the Pearl River Estuary. It has its unique advantages in the manufacturing industry in China and also positions itself as a first-tier city in China's manufacturing industry.
"On the territory of China's manufacturing industry, Foshan is at the high end of the industrial chain relative to the central cities; in the central cities such as the eastern important cities and the north and the north, the tertiary industry is dominated, and Foshan has formed a huge comparative advantage in the dislocation competition; Among the cities dominated by manufacturing, Foshan is the best-based city.” Luo Tianyu, a researcher at the SASAC Commercial Technology Quality Center, described Foshan.
Thanks to the development of dislocation and solid foundation, Foshan's manufacturing industry has developed rapidly over the years. However, the economic downturn has also made Foshan feel a lot of difficulties and challenges. According to the Foshan Economic and Information Technology Bureau (hereinafter referred to as “Foshan Economic Information Bureau”), the transformation and upgrading of traditional enterprises is facing greater risks. The development of emerging industries and high-tech industries lags behind, the independent innovation capability of enterprises is relatively insufficient, and the factor bottleneck needs to be broken. There is a problem of “fragmentation” in policy.
"The growth situation of some traditional enterprises with slow action is not optimistic. In addition, due to the influence of policies such as de-capacity and destocking, some industries with high correlations with real estate policies, such as home appliances, furniture, ceramics, etc., are slowing down, lower than the whole city. In addition, some small and medium-sized enterprises are still confused about the direction and path of transformation and upgrading, and the old comparative advantages have begun to weaken, but new advantages have not yet been formed. Foshan large-scale backbone enterprises have insufficient reserve strength and their development stamina is affected. "Foshan Economic and Information Bureau introduced to the "Xiaokang" reporter.
At the turning point of economic development, Foshan still achieved steady growth in economic aggregates. The basic approach is mainly reflected in the leadership of building an advanced equipment manufacturing industry belt, supporting the private economy to become better and stronger, accelerating a new round of technological transformation, vigorously developing intelligent manufacturing, promoting the deep integration of manufacturing and the Internet, and accelerating energy conservation and consumption reduction. Waiting for work.
In vigorously supporting the development of intelligent manufacturing, Foshan took the lead in implementing "Made in China 2025" and formulated a number of action plans and work plans. Under the condition that the "Made in China 2025" pilot demonstration enterprises have no unified standards, they will take the lead in exploring and formulating evaluation standards. The system has selected 121 key enterprises as pillar demonstration enterprises in the pillar industries such as equipment manufacturing, home appliances and ceramics. At the same time, vigorously implement the “100 Enterprises Intelligent Manufacturing Engineering” and “Machine Leading” programs to guide traditional manufacturing enterprises to widely use robots and intelligent equipment to upgrade the equipment level of traditional manufacturing. In 2016, a total of 125 industrial enterprises above designated size carried out “machine substitution”.
"Intelligent manufacturing is a huge increase in Foshan. Transforming and upgrading traditional industries is the key to the revitalization of Foshan. Considering the stock and increment, Foshan can be expected in the future." Luo Tianqi believes.
According to the Foshan Economic and Information Bureau, in 2017, around the overall goal of building a national manufacturing innovation center and a manufacturing transformation and upgrading demonstration city, Foshan will take the opportunity of deep integration of manufacturing and the Internet to build the advanced equipment manufacturing industry belt in Zhuxi. Promote a new round of technological transformation as a starting point, vigorously cultivate and develop the "four new economy", vigorously promote the development of intelligent high-end manufacturing, continue to support the private economy to become better and stronger, and continuously promote the transformation and upgrading of the industrial economy to the high-end direction. .
Dongguan: New kinetic energy picks the beam, the old kinetic energy rejuvenation machine
Dongguan, located on the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary and bordering Shenzhen on the south side, is one of the important bases for “Made in China” and has made significant contributions to China's economic growth during the 30 years of reform and opening up. Dongguan started in the manufacturing industry, developed in the manufacturing industry, and became famous in the manufacturing industry. Manufacturing is an inseparable part of Dongguan.
At present, the industrial differentiation of Dongguan is prominent. On October 13, 2016, when Premier Li Keqiang visited Dongguan, he understood after the industrial differentiation of Dongguan: "This trend is a good indication that the old and new kinetic energy is accelerating the transformation. I hope to maintain the momentum of development and let the new kinetic energy gradually provoke the girders, the old The kinetic energy is constantly reviving."
The Dongguan Economic and Information Technology Bureau (hereinafter referred to as “Dongguan Economic and Trade Bureau”) was interviewed by the reporter of “Xiaokang”. In recent years, Dongguan has vigorously implemented the innovation-driven development strategy, accelerated the industrial transformation and upgrading, improved quality and efficiency, and continuously optimized the industrial structure. The vitality of the industry continues to increase. However, at the same time, the development mode is still relatively extensive, and the innovation capability, product profit rate, and unit land output efficiency are still low. In the face of rising factor costs and increasingly tight resource environment, the marginal supply increase of traditional factors has been difficult to support the further development of the industrial economy.
At the same time, the current domestic and international economic situation is still complicated and severe. Manufacturers generally face problems such as increased production costs, difficult financing, and shortage of technical talents, which restricts the development of enterprises. Therefore, accelerating the intensification strategy and taking a new path of connotation development that is completely different from the factor driving has become an inevitable choice and urgent requirement for Dongguan's industrial economic growth mode in the new era.
In recent years, Dongguan has attached great importance to the development of the manufacturing industry. With the goal of building a famous international manufacturing city, Dongguan has issued the "Opinions on Implementing the "Dongguan Manufacturing 2025" Strategy" and "Developing the Development of Robotic Intelligent Equipment Industry to Build Advanced Manufacturing with Global Influence". The Opinions of the Base and other policies and measures to support the development of the manufacturing industry, promote the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry, accelerate the transition from a manufacturing market to a strong manufacturing city, and strive to create a model city in China. In February 2017, the Dongguan Municipal Government issued the No. 1 Document on the Implementation of the Scale and Benefit Doubled Plan of Key Enterprises to Comprehensively Enhance the Level of Industrial Intensive Development, and promoted the principle of “Selecting Excellent, Training and Training”. Pilot companies have doubled their scale and efficiency.
"Let the new kinetic energy gradually provoke the girders, the old kinetic energy will continue to revitalize the machine", and accurately outline the new economic development strategy of Dongguan under the new normal. The Dongguan Economic and Information Bureau accepted an interview with the reporter of "Xiaokang". In recent years, Dongguan has insisted on industrial restructuring as the main starting point for transforming the development mode. It will combine stable growth with transformation, storage and optimization, and promote industrial structure. Accelerating from the low-end to the middle and high-end, the city's advanced manufacturing and high-tech manufacturing industries have maintained rapid growth and the proportion has been rising.
"While the new kinetic energy represented by advanced manufacturing and high-tech manufacturing is developing rapidly, textiles, garments, paper, food and beverage are still the pillar industries of the city. Toys and furniture are also the characteristic industries of the city. The transformation and upgrading of the traditional industries is an indispensable part of the city's establishment of a modern industrial system.” Dongguan Economic and Trade Bureau said, “The city is actively handling the relationship between optimizing stocks and increasing increments, and insisting on walking on two legs. Promote the positive interaction and common development between traditional industries and modern industries."
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